Natural resources are means of livelihood without which the person cannot live and which he finds in the nature. It is water, soils, plants, animals, minerals which we use directly or in the processed look. They give us food, clothes, a shelter, fuel, energy and raw materials for work of the industry, from them the person creates subjects of comfort, the car and medicines. Some types of resources, for example mineral, it is possible to use only once (though some metals and can serve as secondary raw materials). Such types of resources are called as ischerpayemy or not renewable resources. They have final stocks which replenishment on Earth is almost impossible. First, because there are no such conditions in which they were formed millions years ago, and secondly, the speed of formation of minerals immeasurably more slowly, than an expenditure by their person.
Some minerals are so important for life and human health, as air and water. Table salt, for example, without which cannot manage the person, was object of an exchange throughout human history. It became also the major industrial raw materials – its stocks in crust and at the ocean are very great and the mankind has this resource much.
lands. Emergence of an erosion of soils, insufficiently regulated allocation of land for nonagricultural needs, flooding, flooding and bogging, overgrowing are the wood and a bush the main reasons for reduction of the farmland. Also underground and open-cast minings of minerals belong to the factors promoting destruction of soils.
The soil – the superficial fertile layer of crust created under cumulative influence of external conditions: it is warm, waters, air, vegetable and animal organisms, especially microorganisms. Soil resources are one of the most necessary prerequisites of providing life on Earth. However their role is underestimated now. The soil as an element of the biosphere is urged to provide the biochemical environment for the person, animals and plants. Only with the soil full-fledged conditions for production of food, a forage for animals can be provided. The soil as natural body is the integral functions accumulation of an atmospheric precipitation and regulation of water balance, concentration of batteries of plants, education and ensuring purity of underground waters.
Drainage of boggy lands increases resources of soils. Bogs represent valuable land grounds. After drainage they are used under various agricultural cultures, and also for cultivation of the wood and production of peat. Soils of the drained bogs are fertile, in them a large amount of amino acids, nitrogen and other organic substances collects. But continuous drainage of bogs can do harm (an example of that the continuous melioration which led to deplorable results is) therefore there are various ways of regulation of the water mode at drainage of bogs which are not allowing negative consequences, for example, creation of reservoirs in upper courses of the rivers and capacities for water deduction.
Objects of the second sort at first sight do not withdraw air and water of their environment. For example, hydroelectric power stations, city dumps treat them. However, strictly speaking, objects of the second sort also withdraw resources from the environment, but volumes of resources, in comparison with objects of the first sort, are insignificant and they can be neglected. The resources returned on Wednesday can strongly influence its quality.
Often happens very difficult to draw line between renewable and not renewable resources. So, for example, plants and animals if it is wasteful to use them, without caring of consequences, can disappear from the face of the earth. Therefore, in this plan they can be carried to not renewable resources. On the other hand, the plant and animal life possesses ability to self-reproduction and at reasonable use can be kept. Thus, in principle these resources are renewable.
Development of minerals has to be conducted so that whenever possible completely to use chemical elements, not to throw out in a dump even poor ores, up to the end to settle fields. It is necessary to keep minerals in the course of transportation to processing places. Big losses of coal at the underground fires are still frequent, large sums are spent for fight against them. Losses at production, enrichment and processing of ores of non-ferrous and rare metals are considerable. Here the main metals and the accompanying components are lost.